G-d in NatureSignature of G-d in the Universe
by Yosef Sebag, physicist, electrical engineer
Did the Creator of the universe attach his signature in nature?
Modern science has unlocked much of the mysteries of the universe. We have probed the atom, studied the cell, and peered out to the far edges of the observable universe. Surely if such a signature exists, we should have found it by now.
Let us examine, but before we can recognize the signature of G-d, we need to first know what is G-d's Name.
The Torah reveals to us that the primary Name of G-d is the Tetragramaton. According to our sources (Shaarei Kedusha Part 4 Gate 3), this Name encompasses everything.
The Tetragramaton is spelled by the four letters: Yud - Heh - Vav - Heh.
The latter three letters (Heh-Vav-Heh) spell Hovei, which means "present" in Hebrew. While the first letter prefix "Yud" indicates future tense.
Thus, the meaning of the Tetragramaton is that G-d is ever-present, i.e. eternal, He was, is, and always will be. It also connotes that G-d is constantly creating the present. He is the underlying Source of all existence in the universe.
Now that we know G-d's Name, let us see if we can find His signature in nature.
The universe can be divided into four major areas:
1. the container of everything - i.e. space/time
2. the laws of physics which govern how things work.
3. the matter and energy contained within space.
Perhaps, we are already starting to see one signature of G-d - four major areas paralleling the four letters of the Tetragramaton. Let us now examine each of these four areas and see if this persists..
FOUR DIMENSIONAL SPACETIME
The primary way to interpret our world is 4-dimensional space - three spatial dimensions (x,y,z) and the fourth dimension is time (t). To specify the location of something, one needs to know all 4 dimensions.
Some physicists theorize there are more dimensions (string theory). But these theoretical extra dimensions are smaller than atoms and impossible to observe. The highest number of dimensions scientists are willing to postulate for the time being is 26 dimensions, 25 spatial and 1 time (Bosonic string theory, note magic number 26).
In any case, for all practical purposes from a human perspective there are four dimensions - 3 of space and and 1 of time.
According to the torah, what counts is the human perspective, since man is the reason for creation and from the human perspective there are four dimensions.
Perhaps we can say that the 4 primary dimensions of space-time correspond to the four letters of G-d's Name.
Yud = time dimension, Heh-Vav-Heh = 3 spatial dimensions.
As before the letter Yud as a prefix connotes future, i.e. time, while Heh-Vav-Heh which means "present" in Hebrew, connotes a frame of existence, i.e. space.
Here is one possible instance of G-d's signature.
LAWS OF PHYSICS
The fundamental forces of physics which shape our universe are four - gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear. These are said to be fundamental forces because they do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions. Again we have the number four. Perhaps these four also parallel the four letters of the Tetragramaton.
BASIC ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS
The laws of physics are all governed by purely mathematical statements. There are four basic mathematical operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication,and division. Again we have the number four. (note: multiplication is repeated addition only for integers. Beyond that it gets more complicated.)
Let us now look at the content of the universe, i.e. the mass/energy content from a human perspective.
STATES OF MATTER
According to wikipedia, four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma (in stars and lightning). Though there are some other exotic states of matter, but as before from our human perspective, these are the states we encounter. Note again the number four.
FOUR PARTICLES OF MATTER/ENERGY
From a human perspective, the number of particles we encounter in our daily lives are four. All matter we interact with is comprised of atoms which differ only by the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons they contain (according to wikipedia: "the atom is the smallest unit of matter that has the properties of a chemical element"). The fourth particle we encounter is the photon. So for example, a table or computer contains protons, neutrons, and electrons, and we observe it visually through photons of light. So too for everything else on our planet. Granted there are other particles inside protons, etc. but we do not encounter them in any way outside the protons. Thus, from our perspective, the number of particles we interact with are four.
To quote a physics web page of Kiel University:
The Gang of FourTo summarize, for all practical purposes from our perspective there are four particles we encounter in our every day life. Note again the number four.
To repeat myself: "Everything you can see - the stars in the sky, your wife, the TV set, the mountain range, the ocean, your boss or your underlings, the dust mites dancing in a ray of light, everything-and that includes you-consists of atoms and photons. That's it. There is nothing else for non-scientists like you. It's my and my fellow scientists privilege that on rare occasions we can also "look" at things that are different from atoms (including their constituents) and photons".
So let's talk elementary particles here. Only four of them are of any importance to normal people:
That's it. You can go rather far with this gang of four... Everybody with a halfway decent general education knows, of course, that there are hell of a lot more elementary particles.. Well, forget them. They are important for us scientists. Some of them we actually use in Materials Science but they are of no importance for you and me in everyday life... (end quote)
- The electron. We need it for electricity and electronics - and for a lot more, like making atoms and ions.
- The proton. We need it for nuclear magnetic resonance tomography (NMR), for ionized hydrogen and, not to forget, for making all the atoms.
- The neutron. We need it for making nuclear bombs, nuclear reactors, neutron beam technologies, and - like protons - for making atoms.
- The photon. Whenever you think about electromagnetic waves in terms of particles, you call that particle a photon. We need photons so we can see, but also for Radio, TV, X-rays gamma-rays and for connecting charges.
Let us now look a bit at life on our planet...
FOUR SPIRAL ARMS IN OUR GALAXY
A new 12-year study published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society has confirmed that our Milky Way Galaxy has four spiral arms, following years of debate that it has only two arms.
In 2008, scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope scoured our Galaxy for infrared light emitted by stars. They revealed about 110 million stars, but only evidence of two spiral arms.
The astronomers behind the new study used several radio telescopes to individually observe about 1,650 massive stars in the Galaxy. The distances and luminosities of these stars were calculated, revealing a distribution across four spiral arms. see here for more.
FOURTH BODY IN SOLAR SYSTEM
Our planet is the fourth major body in the solar system - sun, mercury, venus, earth. Again the number four.
FOUR LAYERS OF ATMOSPHERE
The earth's atmosphere has four primary layers - the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. There is also an extremely low density exosphere (above 700km) but some scientists don't consider it part of the atmosphere. It is basically a transition area between the edge of the atmosphere and outer space. Again the number four shows up.
FOUR CONTINUOUS LAND MASSES
How many major land masses are there on our planet? According to wikipedia: "a continuous area of land surrounded by ocean is called a "landmass".. Landmasses include supercontinents, continents, and islands. There are four major continuous landmasses on Earth: Afro-Eurasia, the Americas, Antarctica and Australia". end quote
Everything on our planet can be divided into four kingdoms - inanimate, plant, animal, and humans. Inanimate objects are not alive. Plants (and bacteria, etc.) grow and reproduce. Animals also have consciousness and will. Humans also have abstract intellect and free will, i.e. they have a higher level of consciousness. Thus, humans are able to choose to go against their animal side and can also contemplate the world and its Creator.
DNA IS BASE FOUR
All known life on earth is highly related using a common base-4 DNA genetic code. The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Likewise, all known life on earth is based on the carbon atom largely due to its special ability to create 4 electron bonds with other atoms and repeat this process indefinitely. Biochemist Dr. Michael Denton (agnostic) points out in his book "Nature's Destiny" several examples of the number four appearing throughout molecular biology. In page 192 he states:
"We have also seen that because of the natural twist in the DNA double helix, protein recognition motifs such as the alpha helix can only feel about 4 bases in the DNA double helix. It has often been said that G-d is a mathematician; on the evidence of molecular biology we might add that He is keen on the number four".
We can find more examples of the number 4 in our own physiognomy. One of the most famous kabbalistic works, the Etz Chaim (Shaar Peh Ozen Chotem, ch.1), explains that the four windows in the face (eyes, ears, nose, mouth) correspond to the four letters in G-d's Name. Man is supposed to be a microcosm of the universe. Likewise our physical form is comprised of four main parts - head, arms, legs and body.
The Kabbalah describes existence in terms of four levels of soul and four main worlds. These are said to parallel the Tetragrammaton. In our world – known as Asiyah – time is delineated via the four seasons and twelve months. The latter parallel the 12 possible tzirufim (permutations) of the letters in the Tetragramaton. There are also four compass directions - north, south, east and west.
The Hebrew letters which are the spiritual building blocks of all creation consist of letters, vowels, crowns, and cantillation notes. These four are said to parallel the Tetragramaton. The world was created by G-d "speaking" through these Hebrew letters.
Conclusion: To quote master Kabalist, Rabbi Chaim Vital (Shaarei Kedusha 3:1):
Behold, we have explained that all the worlds are included in the Name Yud-Heh-Vav-Heh, which divides into 4 foundations and 10 sefirot. Likewise each world sub-divides in this manner. For example, the world of Atzilut which is the letter "Yud", which is called Chachma, divides into all the levels we explained. And it contains one complete Yud-Heh-Vav-Heh which divides into 4 foundations and 10 complete sefirot in the exact manner mentioned [above] for all the worlds in their totality. And it is this way for all the worlds mentioned. And in this way it continues to go and sub-divide in absolute divisioning until we find that even in this lowly word there is no tiny creature which does not contain the complete 4 letters Yud-Heh-Vav-Heh and the complete 10 sefirot. And all this is in order to teach that everything was created by the power of the Creator, blessed be He, and that there is no other [power].I believe the above indications support the idea that the signature of G-d pervades the universe.
Let us look at some other interesting indications along these lines..
Symmetry of the Universe Around Our Solar System
Another sign of the Creator, on a macroscopic level, is the symmetry of the universe around our solar system. The torah states that the purpose of creation is man.
Interestingly, recent studies in the cosmic background radiation permeating the universe have revealed an axis of symmetry around the universe. Scientists expected the cosmic background radiation to be randomly distributed. But instead they were shocked to discover that the universe displays symmetry. This axis of symmetry is none other than the Earth's equinox plane around the sun. In other words, the entire observable universe is symmetrical around the earth.
(This symmetry is not only dual symmetry where the top half of the universe is symmetrical to the bottom half. But amazingly, there is also similar symmetry in the quadrupoles and octupoles (where one divides the universe into four quadrants or eight octants).
This has been called the "Axis of Evil" by baffled scientists. see here for more. An interesting video documentary was made by christians on this called "the Principle". As of now, this phenomena looks very real and the scientists, academics, and media, etc. are trying very hard to downplay it. Is this yet another "hello" from the Almighty?
It does seem to indicate that man is indeed the center and focus of the universe as the torah teaches, and the rest is just background scenery.
As to why the symmetry is repeated three times, there is a concept in Halacha (Jewish law) that when something unusual occurs three times, it should not considered a fluke thing. The three axis also spell the letter Beit, the first letter in the Torah, as explained here.
==== PART 2 - Number 26 in Nature ====
Now that we have seen many examples of the number four. Let us see if the Gematria or numerical value of the Tetragramaton appears in nature.
The gematrial or numerical value of the Tetragramaton is 26. The Yud is the tenth letter, Heh is the 5th letter, Vav is the 6th and Heh again is the 5th. Thus the gematria or numerical value of the Tetragramaton is 10+5+6+5=26.
Size of the Observable Universe
According to wikipedia, the Diameter of the observable universe is 8.8 x 1026 meters (i.e. 1 with 26 zeros).
This number will not change with better telescopes. Scientists calculated it using the speed of light and the (theoretical) age of the universe since the Big Bang.
Again we see the magic number 26 (in 1026 meters).
Note that we could have used light years instead of meters and gotten a smaller number, but as before, from a human perspective, the meter is the natural measure to use. It is the standard international unit of measure of length on our planet for most human beings. As before, the universe is built around man from a torah perspective.
What about the 8.8? Perhaps this is an allusion to the "gematria ketana" of 26, obtained by adding the digits - 26 => 2+6 = 8.
The number 8 also represents that which transcends nature.
For instance the Brit Mila (circumcision) occurs on the eighth day. Circumsizing the organ of reproduction represents that Jewish continuity is above the natural order. According to the natural order, the Jews should have disappeared long ago. Yet, they somehow manage to survive due to the unseen Hand of G-d which intervenes in nature.
Big Bang Entropy
While scientists argue and theorise, only G-d knows the veracity of the Big Bang. Our Torah sources say that G-d created everything with an opening – this gives the possibility of a natural explanation for free will. But even within these openings, there are signs that G-d is behind it all.
According to Roger Penrose, Mathematical Physicist at Oxford University, the initial state of the early universe had to be in an extremely unlikely configuration for it to exist in a state which can support atoms and life. He calculated the odds using a black hole model and came up with a staggering one in ten to the power of ten to the power of 123 - 1010123.
This is an unbelievable number – quite literally. It's not 1 with 123 zeros but rather one with 10123 (pronounced 10 to the power of 123) zeros. Multiply 10 by itself 123 times - that's the number of zeroes in this number. It is such a huge number that if you were to write it out in normal form, it would fill all the books, hard drives, CDs, etc. on the planet and this would still not be enough. Penrose himself said that if you were to put a zero on every atom in the observable universe, it would still fall short of writing this number down.
To get a feel for these odds, imagine a combination lock with not 4 numbers to crack but rather 10123 numbers to crack. Good luck!
If we take another look at this curiously elegant number, 1010123, we also see that 10+10+1+2+3=26 is the numerical value of the Tetragrammaton: Yud-Heh-Vav-Heh. Likewise if we sum all the digits 1+0+1+0+1+2+3=8=2+6, the "gematria ketana" of 26. Coincidence?
The Sun is the primary source of energy and heat for life on earth. According to wikipedia, it releases an estimated 3.8 x 1026 watts of energy in the form of light and other forms of radiation. The watt is the international standard of measure of power for most human beings on the planet. Again the number 26 shows up.
What about the number 3? Perhaps this is an allusion to the third patriarch Jacob who was compared to the sun in the dream of Joseph in Genesis?
More on the sun: the rotation of the sun to the same apparent position as viewed from Earth is 26.24 days (synodic rotation). There are 26,000 years (rounded off) in the precession of the equinoxes, colloquially known as the 'great astronomical year'. The sun is also 2.5 million trillion kilometers = 26,000 light years away from the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy (located at the longitudinal degree of 26 Sagittarius).
26 Fundamental Constants of the Universe
The fundamental constants of the universe describe the strength of all the forces, interactions and physical properties of everything in our universe. These fundamental constants determine the structure of everything in our universe, from quarks, atoms, and electron transitions to galaxy clusters and stellar explosions. Alter any of these numbers even slightly and the universe would be a radically different place. Most likely no life of any kind could possibly exist. How many fundamental constants are there? As of now, if we want to describe the Universe as simply and completely as possible, it takes no less and no more than 26 dimensionless constants to get us there. For more details see here or here  .
Some quotes by scientists:
"The really amazing thing is not that life on Earth is balanced on a knife-edge, but that the entire universe is balanced on a knife-edge, and would be total chaos if any of the natural 'constants' were off even slightly. Even if you dismiss man as a chance happening, the fact remains that the universe seems unreasonably suited to the existence of life-almost contrived-you might say a 'put-up job'" - Paul Davies - Professor of Theoretical Physics
"Curious as that seems, it is a possibility worth weighing-against the only alternative I can imagine: Eddington's suggestion that G-d is a mathematical physicist." Dr.George Wald, Fitness in the Universe Origins of Life, Vol. 5, p. 26.
26 Atomic Elements in the Human Body
According to the biology department of Arizona State University:
"Of the elements found in the human body, four of them make up the largest percentage of our body weight (96.2%). The four elements are oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen. On the right are the 11 common elements and their percentage of total body weight. The other essential trace elements (less than 0.01%) are: boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), fluorine (F), iodine (I), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)"Total: you guessed it - 26. Note that some biologists add or substract one or two trace elements to the list. It is not fully known which trace elements are essential to life as explained here. In any case, the number of essential elements is about 26.
The 26th atomic element is iron (it has 26 protons). Iron is an essential element uniquely fit for blood production and oxygen transport. The nefesh (soul) is said to reside in the blood.
Iron is uniquely fit for transporting oxygen, the breath of life. It is what gives blood its red color. The nefesh (soul) is said to reside in the blood. The talmud says that man and woman provide the body while G-d provides the soul. Perhaps this alludes that the soul comes from 26, i.e. G-d. Interestingly, the human heart is four-chambered (likewise Oxygen, the breath of life itself, is atomic number 8 which is the gematria ketana of 26. The oxygen atom also has two electron orbitals of 2-6 electrons respectively).
According to a journal on applied chemistry:
Iron is an essential element for most life on Earth, including human beings by participating in a wide variety of metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and electron transport. Iron is needed for a number of highly complex processes that continuously take place on a molecular level and that are indispensable to human life... Haemoglobin is the oxygen transport protein used in the blood of vertebrates. It is composed of four polypeptide chains. The iron is the site of oxygen binding; each iron can bind one O2 molecule, thus each haemoglobin molecule is capable of binding a total of four O2 molecules. The iron atom in heme binds to the four nitrogen atoms in the centre of the porphyrin ring ... Haemoglobin consists of four myoglobin units joined together. (you get the idea)The iron atom also plays a key role in many other areas in nature such as the earth's magnetic field and the production of atomic elements in stellar explosions.
The human foot is a strong and complex mechanical structure containing 26 bones. An anthropometric study of 1197 North American adult Caucasian males (mean age 35.5 years) found that a man's foot length was 26.3 cm with a standard deviation of 1.2 cm. Interestingly, the number of bones in our (adult) bodies is 206, a hint to 26. Thus not only do we stand on 26 but it supports our bodies!
The main english word for Yud-Heh-Vav-Heh is "G-O-D". G is the 7th letter, O is the 15th letter, D is the fourth letter of the english alphabet.
What is the most famous constant in all of mathematics? No question, it is the number π (Pi) . This number shows up everywhere in math and physics. It is defined as the ratio of the circumference of a circle divided by its diameter.
Since Pi goes on forever, we take the first 8 numbers and round it off. As before 8 is the gematria ketana of the Tetragramaton.
The first 8 numbers are:
Rounding it off we get.
3+1+4+1+5+9+3 = 26
Notice what number shows up at the exact place where we rounded it off 3.1415926.. - again 26!
(interestingly, the number 26 shows up again after 13 digits. Likewise in the torah, the name of G-d appears a second time after 13 words. This is significant as brought down in the opening teaching of the Zohar regarding the 13 rose petals. 26 does not appear again in Pi until after 253 more digits.)
In mathematics, 26 is unique in that it is the one and only integer which is exactly between a squared number and a cubed number. Namely:
what is between 27 and 25? - 26.
There is no other integer besides 26 which is exactly between a square and a cube.
Notice also what is between 3 and 5? - the magic number 4!
Last but not least, the id in the url of this article is http://dafyomireview.com/526. 526 is Heh=5 and 26. Heh is the famous abbreviation for Hash-em (Yud-Heh-Vav-Heh). Thus, we have H' - 26! The signature within the signature! (not planned. nice surprise :-).
Note that this is not to say we need any kind of signature to see G-d in nature. The divine wisdom is manifest in everything. Even the tiniest bacteria or even an atom is an endless wonder and wellspring of bottomless wisdom to those who study it, as explained here.
>> Next: Signature of the Torah
-  "And if you ask, why should we cling our thoughts in this name more than any other name (of G-d)? It is because this Name is the Source of sources and the Cause of causes and everything is included in it, from the Keter to the Atara, from Ein Sof to Ein Sof, and it is the cause of all existence from the Keter to a small mosquito" - Shaarei Kedusha Part 4 Gate 3 return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamental_interaction return to text
-  http://dafyomireview.com/article.php?docid=427&d=17 return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arithmetic#Arithmetic_operations return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_matter return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom return to text
-  https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_4/advanced/a4_1_1.html return to text
-  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Earth return to text
-  https://scied.ucar.edu/shortcontent/exosphere-overview return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observable_universe return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun#Core return to text
-  https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/multimedia/black-hole-SagittariusA.html return to text
-  https://patrickwatsonastrology.com/black-holes-and-astrology/ return to text
-  https://www.forbes.com/sites/ethansiegel/2015/08/22/it-takes-26-fundamental-constants-to-give-us-our-universe-but-they-s... return to text
-  https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/how-many-fundamental-constants-does-it-take-to-explain-the-universe-e00abd83d4c9 return to text
-  http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/constants.html return to text
-  http://dafyomireview.com/advisor-files/iosr-iron.pdf return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foot#Structure return to text
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi#In_popular_culture return to text
-  https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/874226/proof-that-26-is-the-one-and-only-number-between-square-and-cube return to text